I. As to the history of the territory. Whilst our heathen English forefathers were gradually lirst devastating, and then themselves settling down in, the eastern and southern parts of the country, to which they gave their name, the British principalities in the north-west drew together into the kingdom of Strathclyde a kingdom which stretched from the Clyde to the Mersey, and from the sea to the hills that form the watershed. The capital of this kingdom was Alclwyd, or Dumbarton, which was strongly fortified to protect the British from the incursions of the Scots and Picts of the north ; the hills guarded them on the east from the Northumbrian English and the Britons of Elmet (which, roughly speaking, answered to the West Riding); south of the Mersey was another British kingdom, Gwynedd, of which the capital was Chester. It was not until the seventh century that the southern portion of the kingdom of Strathclyde, that part which now forms the county of Lancaster, became English territory ; it was gradually dismembered by the Northumbrian English.